- Present, M.T., U.S. Patent 3,466,873, September 16, 1969
Sanitary Landfill Method
- Johnston, F. B., U.S. Patent 4,127,383, November 28, 1978
Foaming Waste Treatment Composition and Method for Treating Nitrogenous Waste Material Therewith
- Kramer, F., U.S. Patent 4,421,788, December 20, 1983
Method and Apparatus for Coating A Substrate with Foamed Plastic
- Kramer, F., U.S. Patent 4,519,338, May 28, 1985
Apparatus and Method for Applying a Foam Layer to Cover and Seal Dumped Waste
- Kent, D.W., U.S. Patent 4,795,590, January 3, 1989
Treatment of Hazardous Material with Vapor Suppressing Persistent, Water-Containing, Polymeric Air Foam
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,874,641, October 17, 1989
Method of Providing a Barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and Compositions Therefor
- Alm, R.R. U.S. Patent 4,923,903, May 8, 1990
Dyed Aqueous Air Foams
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,990,373, February 5, 1991
Membrane-Forming Foam Composition and Method
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,011,330, April 30, 1991
Foam Distribution Apparatus
- Stern, R.M., U.S. Patent 5,026,735, June 25, 1991
Treatment of Hazardous Materials with Aqueous Air Foam of Polyhydroxy Polymer
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,066,428, November 19, 1991
Foam Generating Apparatus
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,096,616, March 17, 1992
Method of providing a Foam Barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and Compositions Therefor
- Norman, E.C., U.S. Patent 5,133,991, July 28, 1992
Method for Applying a Biodegradable Protein Foam to a Substrate
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,215,786, June 1, 1993
Composition for Providing a Foam barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and the Method of Use
- DiMaio, L.R., U.S. Patent 5,225,095, July 6, 1993
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,556,033, September 17, 1996
Apparatus for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
- Chao, Y. H., U.S. Patent 5,696,174, December 9, 1997
Stable and Water-resistant Aqueous Foam Composition
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,849,364, December 15, 1998
Self-Foaming Sprayable Composition
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 5,853,050, December 29, 1998
Composition and Method for Generating a Foam Barrier and Methods of Use Thereof
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,897,946, April 27, 1999
Flowable Material to Isolate or Treat a Surface
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 6,096,373, August 1, 2000
Sprayable Composition and Method for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 6,929,423, August 16, 2005
Gas Recovery From Landfills Using Aqueous Foam
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 6,994,491, February 7, 2006
Gas Recovery From Landfills Using Aqueous Foam (H2S Control)
- Kittle, P.A., "Flammability of Plastics & Polymers Used as Alternate Daily Covers — A Summary of Technical Information from the Public Domain"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA, April, 1993
- Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Comparison of Long Duration Foam, Synthetic Tarpaulins, Geotextiles, and Soil as Subtitle D Compliant Daily Cover Materials for Sanitary Landfills"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA February, 1992
- "Sanitary Landfill Cover Materials Compared"
Public Works, May, 1993, page 51
- Kittle, P.A., "Alternate Daily Cover Materials and Subtitle D — The Selection Technique"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA, June, 1993
- Kittle, P.A., "Alternative Daily Cover Materials and Subtitle D — Control of Fires"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA, October, 1993
- Kittle, P.A., "Flammability of Alternative Daily Cover Materials — A Summary of ASTM E1354 Cone Calorimeter Results"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA, October, 1993
- Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control — AC-900L and AC-900 Foam Using the Surface Emission Isolation Flux Chamber"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA , November, 1991
- Kittle, P.A., "Sanitary Landfill Alternative Covers — Combustibility and Control of Fire"
The Times, National Fire Protection Association, Fire Service Newsletter, Issue #2, July, 1994, page 10, and, The Information Source, Official Publication of the National Association of State Fire Marshals, Volume 2, Issue 1, August, 1994, page 10
- Kittle, P.A., "Four Aqueous Foam Sanitary Landfill Applications"
Waste Management Technology Forum, Houston, TX, August 10, 2004
C.E. Schmidt is the co-inventor of the flux chamber, the technology used to measure the emissions in these studies. He is the co-author of the primary text on the subject, "Assessment and Control of VOC Emissions from Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities," Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993, ISBN 0-442-01229-2. His consulting firm can be contacted at 19200 Live Oak Road, Red Bluff, CA 96080, telephone, 530-529-4256, fax, 530-529-4878, or by using his email link, or his web page.
The membrane forming foam composition (U.S. Patent 4,990,373) has been used successfully on sanitary landfills to seal and odor control leachate breakouts.
ASTM Committee D-35.03 has a task group, chaired by Mark Cadwallader, developing a Standard on the subject of Alternative Daily Cover Materials. Additional information can be obtained from the Staff Manager for ASTM Committee D-35, or the ASTM web page. A draft standard has submitted for preliminary D-35 Committee vote.