Government Laboratories


There seems to be only one government laboratory involved in the development of aqueous foam technology. Sandia National Laboratories, over the years, has been involved with foam applications related to military, defense, and law enforcement, as well as general physical properties of foam.

Peter Rand has been the principal investigator on many of the Sandia projects, and he now has his own consulting company, Innovative Technology, 2109 White Cloud, NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112. Telephone: 505-299-1048; fax: 505-332-2464. He can be contacted via email.

More recently Sandia has published some theoretical foam work:

See references to Sandia's work on the Military, Defense, Law page on this site.

Other Government

The Air Force was recently granted a patent describing the technology for producing foams from pitch, with the specific interest being the foamed, or porous, carbon obtained after heating.

This was followed by another government-based carbon foam patent issued to Lockheed Martin for work done at Oak Ridge:

This technology has been licensed and commercialized by Poco Graphite, Inc., Decatur, TX, 940-393-4462, main contact is Patrick Lloyd. A press release from Oak Ridge National Laboratory outlines the circumstances.

There are some background patents on the same subject:

  • Bonzom, A., U.S. Patent 4,276,246, June 30, 1981
    Process for Preparing Pitch Foams and Products so Produced
  • Arnold, C., U.S. Patent 4,832,881, May 23, 1989
    Low Density Microcellular Carbon Foams and Method of Preparation


Stephen Langer at NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersberg, MD 20899-8910, 301-975-5423, has done some mathematical modeling of foam systems. Some of his results are presented in video form, showing foam being sheared. There are two short (<2MB each) videos, one showing foam in a low shear environment and the other in a high shear environment.

Slow Shear Foam

Fast Shear Foam


If there are other government laboratory programs, please email the information to foamman.