- Fisher, G.M., U.S. Patent 1,985,491, December 25, 1934
Froth for Sealing Volatile Liquids
- Barthauer, G.L., U.S. Patent 3,479,285, November 18, 1969
Foam Producing Materials and Method for Atmospheric Control with High Expansion Foam
- Johnston, B. J., U.S. Patent 4,127,383, November 28, 1978
Foaming Waste Treatment Composition and Method for Treating Nitrogenous Waste Material Therewith
- Chay, D.M., U.S. Patent 4,284,601, August 18, 1981
Surfactant Foams and Their Use
- Kent, D.W., U.S. Patent 4,795,590, January 3, 1989
Treatment of Hazardous Material with Vapor Suppressing Persistent, Water-Containing, Polymeric Air Foam
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,874,641, October 17, 1989
Method of providing a Barrier Between a Substrate and the Atmosphere and Compositions Therefor
- Kittle, P.A., U.S. Patent 4,990,373, February 5, 1991
Membrane-Forming Foam Composition and Method
- Stern, R.M., U.S. Patent 5,026,735, June 25, 1991
Treatment of Hazardous Materials with Aqueous Air Foam of Polyhydroxy Polymer
- Thach, S., U.S. Patent 5,434,192, July 18, 1995
High-Stability Foams for Long-Term Suppression of Hydrocarbon Vapors
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,556,033, September 17, 1996
Apparatus for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
- Aubert, W.G., U.S. Patent 5,782,580, July 21, 1998
Soil Remediation Method
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,849,364, December 15, 1998
Self-Foaming Sprayable Composition
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 5,897,946, April 27, 1999
Flowable Material to Isolate or Treat a Surface
- Nachtman, T. J., U.S. Patent 6,096,373, August 1, 2000
Sprayable Composition and Method for Forming a Foamed Outdoor Protective Cover Layer
- Hayes, T.D., U.S. Patent 6,210,955, April 3, 2001
Foam Transport Process for In-Situ Remediation of Contaminated Soils
- Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Comparison of Long Duration Foam, Synthetic Tarpaulins, Geotextiles, and Soil as Subtitle D Compliant Daily Cover Materials for Sanitary Landfills"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA February, 1992
- Kittle, P.A., and Schmidt, C.E., "Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control of AC-900L and AC-900 Foam Using the Surface Emission Isolation Flux Chamber"
Technical Report, West Chester, PA , November, 1991
- ASTM 1129-88, "Guide for Using Aqueous Foams to Control the Vapor Hazard from Immiscible Volatile Liquids"
(This guide is included in a larger publication, "ASTM Standards on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response," ISBN 0-8031-1798-1, and they are both obtainable from ASTM directly or through their web site.)
C.E. Schmidt is the co-inventor of the flux chamber, the technology used to measure the emissions in these studies. He is the co-author of the primary text on the subject, "Assessment and Control of VOC Emissions from Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities," Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993, ISBN 0-442-01229-2. His consulting firm can be contacted at 19200 Live Oak Road, Red Bluff, CA 96080, telephone, 530-529-4256, fax, 530-529-4878, or by using his email address, or his web page.
Foams have been used for VOC and odor control in the following typical applications: sanitary and hazardous, landfill excavation, leachate storage tanks, sanitary landfill leachate breakouts, storage ponds, storage tanks, material transportation, hazardous landfills, water and sewage treatment plants, sludge storage areas, dredging operations, pond closures, chemical spills, and accidents.
The Institute of Gas Technology has published a paper on the use of foam for delivering "chemicals and bioactivity stimulating amendments" to sludge lagoons at former manufactured gas plants: Hayes, T.D. and Srivastava, V.J., "Foam Mediated Remediation Technology for Gas Industry Applications," in Proceedings of the International Gas Research Conference, Cannes, France, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, November 6-9, 1995.